Its 37 local districts are responsible for policing traffic in urban areas, policing large crowds (e.g., sports fixtures and concerts), and civil protection during emergencies. As a political official, the … The Constitution is a product of modern nationalism and the struggle for independence, yet there was an early project for constitutional rule in 1908, on the eve of the Protectorate, which proposed limited controls on the sultan and was based on the idea that the Japanese, equipped with a constitution, had defeated the autocratic Russian empire in 1906. Morocco has made access to drinking water a priority for many years. An initial answer would be that the country is still vulnerable for a number of reasons. The Navy is the poor relation of the services: it has some modern French-built frigates, but its main fleet consists of aging patrol and coastal craft that cannot prevent fast boat smuggling across the Mediterranean. As a result, many were muted in their criticism and positioned themselves in the political centre. It also appoints the administrative heads of government departments, the presidents of universities, and the heads of other institutions of higher education. One of the new constitutional provisions is that the regional councils should be elected by universal suffrage (Article 135): how could a democratically self-governing Western Sahara coexist with authoritarian Morocco? Before the Protectorate began in 1912, Moroccan law was the Sharia, with the addition of regulations in particular areas based on a mixture of expediency and treaty agreements with foreign countries. The constitutional reforms undertaken by Morocco since the 2011 protests have modified legislative and institutional procedures, yet their real impact on governance needs to be assessed. According to Morocco’s Constitution, executive power is vested in the government, which consists of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet (Article 87). He notes an excessive focus on laws and institutional procedures that do not translate into the necessary transformation in the status of governance and the nature of the Moroccan political regime. Al-Fassi, Ouezzani, and others set up the National Action Bloc (Bloc d’Action National, BAN) and proposed a Plan of Reforms in 1934, which the French rejected. On 19 June 2019, SIGMA organised in Rabat, Morocco – together with the Ministry of Administration Reform and Civil Service of Morocco – a joint OECD-EU high-level conference on public governance. The underlying reason seems to have been to provide a possible solution to the Western Sahara question. The parties vanished during World War II but re-emerged after the American invasion of 1943, with the foundation of the Independence Party (Parti de l’Independence, Parti Istiqlal, or Istiqlal, PI), whose manifesto marks the beginning of modern nationalism and the modern Moroccan state. The Navy is being re-equipped with Dutch-built SIGMA frigates. April 9, 2013. The 2011 US State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices in Morocco reported that corruption and the abuse of detainees were widespread among both National Security officers and gendarmes, undermining law enforcement and the judicial system. The Bloc was banned in 1937 and replaced by two parties, one headed by Ouezzani and the other by al-Fassi. Since coming to the throne, King Mohammed VI has emphasized that the rule of law is a fundamental underpinning of his concept of a constitutional monarchy. This study analyses initiatives undertaken in Morocco to support the management of critical risks. The Air Force relies on older French planes, mainly Mirage F1-C and F1-E acquired in the 1970s and 1980s and American F-5E Tiger. There are two parliamentary sessions a year, beginning in October and April. GIZ also provides support to its Moroccan partners in the fields of … Moreover, autonomous regions elsewhere in the world have functioned smoothly only on the basis of the rule of law and respect for human rights, which might conflict with the vast prerogatives of the King under the current system. Beneath the highest level, consisting of the regions, are the provinces, which are subdivided into communes. The system relies heavily on university academic performance: half the trainees have a law degree, and the rest have higher qualifications, but 80 percent have had no previous professional experience. These historic nationalist parties still exist, though the PDI won no legislative seats since 2002. The Prime Minister and Cabinet are officially appointed by the King, but the government’s programme must be approved by a majority vote of the Chamber of Deputies after a debate in both parliamentary chambers. The corps of judges is also unrepresentative of Moroccan society. Reform of the state-owned enterprise sector in Morocco has undergone three distinct phases: 1) structural reforms in the 1980s, 2) modernisation of th. Full sessions are held in public. Please contact us in case of omissions concerning copyright-protected work. Ensuring governance reform in Morocco … This is formalized in five codes that have been updated and revised at various times: Civil (1913), Penal (1962), Penal Procedure (1959), Commercial (1996), and Mudawana (for family law). This was reflected in the King’s speech in March 2011 and the constitutional amendment in July of the same year. Islamic law too is codified, in the Mudawana. In partnership with the General Directorate of Territorial Collectivities (DGCT) and the Association of Regions of Morocco (ARM), TASHAROC wishes to study the … There are also specialized tribunals: a commercial court system that hears commercial cases involving large sums, with its own system of appeals; administrative courts that deal with initial cases involving the public authorities; independent audit courts that operate at the central and regional levels; and a separate Standing Tribunal of the Royal Armed Forces. The Commission proposed there be only twelve regions, covering larger areas and greater populations and with much greater autonomy. French code-law came to predominate in most of the legal system. Tensions are already mounting between the main political parties. This has been used as the basis for a strong campaign to make Morocco the first Arab country formally to abolish the death penalty. Increasing European hegemony led religiously inspired nationalists to overthrow him and replace him with one of his brothers, Abdelhafid. In partnership with the General Directorate of Territorial Collectivities (DGCT) and the Association of Regions of Morocco (ARM), TASHAROC wishes to study the possibilities of operationalising the recommendations from the 1st national conference on advanced regionalisation for citizen participation, with the British … Governance Structure Conformément à la circulaire du Premier Ministre n°17/2009 du 21 Octobre 2009, le programme e-gouvernement a été doté d'une gouvernance reposant sur trois structures : Le Comité Interministériel e-gouvernement par abréviation CIGOV, présidé par le Ministre en charge de l’Industrie, du Commerce … The Monarchy The conservative Independence Party trailed in third place with 43 seats. Corporate Governance in Transition Economies Morocco Country Report June 2016 Prepared by: Gian Piero Cigna Ahmed Meziou With the assistance of: Nestor Advisors . Women in particular are rarely aware of their rights. As all the constitutions make clear, the head of state is the King (or Sultan, in 1908) who is ‘Commander of the Faithful’ (amir al-muminin). In January 2017, Morocco signed a $91 million deal with Harris Corporation to provide AN/ALQ-211 Advanced Integrated Defensive Electronic Warfare Suite (AIDEWS) systems to help protect its RMAF F-16 aircraft fleet against electronic threats. But Mohammed VI, who came to the throne when he was quite young – he was born in 1963 – has modernizing and technocratic credentials. In the early days after Moroccan independence, the Soviet Union supplied a large amount of military equipment, most of which is no longer in service. The King used the parties as a way to divide the political forces. Good governance is mainstreamed in all GIZ’s programmes in Morocco. Fanack provides an … His authority is derived from his role as the political head of a community defined by belief. The most important subdivision of the MP turned out to be the MCPD, which merged with an Islamist party, Reform and Renewal (Réforme et Renouvellement), led by Abdelilah Benkirane in June 1996 (in 1998 the name was changed to PJD). However, as the US State Department ‘Country Reports on Human Rights Practices‘ on Morocco for 2011 points out, courts often do not act independently in practice and are subject to corruption and extra-judicial influence. Trade courts deal with commercial and business disputes with a value under a specific amount. Article 4 of the preceding (1996) Constitution said exactly the same thing, as did every previous Constitution (1992, 1972, 1970, and 1960), but the rule of law during the reign of his father was extremely circumscribed. Attempts by the Ministry of Justice to set up a multi-media public-awareness campaign on basic rights failed because of lack of funding. First-instance courts hear civil cases related to persons or inheritances, and to social and commercial laws. The Police. The “Morocco New Governance Framework Implementation Support Project” is being funded with a US$4.5 million grant from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Transition Fund, approved on February 20, 2013. After the protests against the Berber Dahir in 1930, the first Moroccan nationalist groups were set up, and three young leaders became the founding fathers of Moroccan politics, Allal al-Fassi, Mehdi Ben Barka, and Mohammed Hassan Ouezzani. The Constitution (Article 80) states that ‘The judicial authority is independent of the legislative power and of the executive power’ and that magistrates are not removable (Article 83). The Open Government Review of Morocco is the first of its kind analysing a country’s open government policies and practices and their institutional and legal frameworks for implementation against OECD instruments. The military forces’ extensive combat experience in the Western Sahara has given them operational expertise in desert warfare and combined air-land warfare. Each session lasts for no more than four months. The form of a constitutional monarchy was retained, and, towards the end of Hassan II’s reign and after the succession of his son Mohammed VI in 1999, the repression was eased. Source: GFP review. In a context of increasing globalization, marked by the intensification of trade in a more competitive environment, the port sector in Morocco and in the world, has become an important lever for development and competitiveness of a country. In the 2016 elections, the results were close for the two main parties: the PJD won 125 of the 395 seats whereas the Authenticity and Modernity Party took 102. Istiqlal was initially a grand coalition, but Ouezzani broke away to found the Democratic Independence Party (Parti Democratique et de l’Independence; PDI) in 1946, the same year that Ali Yata became the first Moroccan to lead the Communist Party of Morocco (Parti Communiste du Maroc, PC). The latter was first enacted in 1957 and modified in 2004 and is by far the most controversial (see Women). Constitutionality has a legitimizing role in Morocco, but so does monarchy. This can have the result of creating alternative legal solutions in certain areas. By bringing together a multitude of OECD instruments and expertise in different areas of public governance… Morocco has one of the larger armed forces in the region but also one of the lowest budgets. He could not resist European pressure and agreed to accept a protectorate, although the French authorities removed him as sultan. According to the World Bank, the value of the weapons Morocco imported in 2016 was about $26 million. The administrative-police functions include public order, public security, and traffic control on roads outside the cities. By bringing together a multitude of OECD instruments and expertise in different areas of public governance, the Review provides Moroccan … That authority, baraka, is an inherited quality passed by genealogical descent from the founder of the Alaouite dynasty Moulay al-Cherif and his son Moulay al-Rashid (1666-1672), who seized power when the Saadi dynasty disintegrated in half a century of civil war. As a result, Morocco is currently experiencing a difficult political situation, characterized by a general m... Stay up to date with the weekly newsletter! The Legislative Mohammed V’s son, Hassan II, who ruled from 1961 until 1999, maintained the facade of a constitutional monarchy, but he was the master of his realm. Parliament passes laws: legislative bills are submitted to both chambers, and if they do not adopt an identical text, the government sets up a joint committee with equal representation to establish it. Avec 189 États membres, des collaborateurs issus de plus de 170 pays et plus de 130 antennes à travers le monde, le Groupe de la Banque mondiale est un partenariat sans équivalent : cinq institutions œuvrant de concert à la recherche de solutions durables pour réduire la pauvreté et favoriser le partage de la prospérité dans les … This was a rolling process, and the final stage in 1930 saw the promulgation of the famous Berber Dahir, which was envisioned as a tidying-up process under which tribal qaids (administrators) would deal with minor criminal matters under French law and civil matters according to what the French defined as Berber customary law. The Government of Morocco has been criticized for a lack of effective resource governance, which has been mainly linked to an incomplete regulatory framework and insufficient disclosure policies (NRGI).